Seeds of South Australia
Callitris gracilis (Cupressaceae)
Slender Cypress-pine
List of species for Callitris
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [Only occurs in small patches]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA bd(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [at time increasing]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened   [depends on river health]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [could be C verrucosa]
IBRA regions
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
  [depends on river health]
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [could be C verrucosa]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Callitris]
Name derivation:
Callitris from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'treis' meaning three, referring to the arrangement of the leaves in whorls of three. Gracilis from Latin meaning graceful or slender, alluding to the form of the species.
Found in the Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas and Kangaroo Island, growing in woodlands, mallee and open scrub on shallow limestone soils to deep acid sands. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Erect pine-like tree to 20 m tall or straggly tree in less favourable habitats, with separate male and female parts on the same tree. Leaves to 4 mm long, dark green, occasionally glaucous; outer side rounded.
Fruit type:
Grey-brown round woody cones to 4 cm diameter with wrinkled surface and scattered tubercles, single or in groups of 2 or more.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seeds to 5 mm long and 3 mm wide, with wing to 3 mm wide on either side.
Seed collecting:
Collect cones that are not open but large, hard and dark. These will contain maturing seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the cones in a tray and leave to dry for 3-5 weeks to allow the cones to open naturally. Then shake the cones in a bucket to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the seeds from the cones. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability was low to average, ranging from 25% to 60%.
Seed germination:
Viable seed should germinate readily, if stored in a fridge prior to sowing in winter.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
1411 (12.01 g)
1516-Sep-2003PJA 26
BGA44457 (378.44 g)5425-May-2004MKJ 34
South Eastern
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Oct-1494%16 d16 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Oct-1486%10 d16 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-0475%14 d21 d
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-0461%14 d21 d cold stratification at 5°C 3 weeks;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)