Seeds of South Australia
Callitris verrucosa (Cupressaceae)
Warty Cypress-pine
List of species for Callitris
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   [edge of range]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient   [likes sand; odd records, might not be here]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Data Deficient   [fire a threat; likes sand dunes]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
  [edge of range]
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
2 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockVulnerable
, Data Deficient
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Data Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Callitris]
Name derivation:
Callitris from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'treis' meaning three; referring to the arrangement of the leaves in whorls of three. Verrucosa from the Latin 'verrucosus' meaning full of warts; referring to the densely tuberculate cones.
Distribution:
Found along a band from the north-west to the south-east in South Australia, growing in mallee open scrub on deep soils, particularly sand dunes. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Small tree or shrub to 8 m tall, usually multi-stemmed. Branches erect. Leaves to 4 mm long, green or grey-green, dorsal surface rounded, arranged in whorls of 3.
Fruit type:
Male cones clustered, cylindrical, to 5 mm long. Female cones single or in groups of 2 or more, subglobose, to 3 cm wide, surface rugose and densely tuberculate, persistent and holding seeds for several years after maturity.
Seed type:
Dark brown ovoid seed to 7 mm long and 3 mm wide, with wing to 4 mm wide on either side.
Seed collecting:
Collect cones that are not open but large, hard and dark. These will contain maturing seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the cones in a tray and leave to dry for 3-5 weeks to allow the cones to open naturally. Then shake the cones in a bucket to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the seeds from the cones. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was low, at 25%.
Seed germination:
Viable seed should germinate readily, if stored in a fridge prior to sowing in winter.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3603 (108.08 g)
4136
55-Dec-2003PJA 60
North Western
23-Mar-200625%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
October 201194%14d21d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201192%14d21d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201188%21d28d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201186%21d21d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201184%14d21d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201182%14d21d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201324%21dNA None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201318%21dNA None
0.7% water agar supplemented with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201316%21dNA None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201310%21dNA None
0.7% water agar supplemented with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
October 20130%NANA None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
October 20130%NANA None
0.7% water agar supplemented with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5)
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)