Seeds of South Australia
Calocephalus citreus (Compositae)
Lemon Beauty-heads
List of species for Calocephalus
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Seed collecting:
February to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [records not databased]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat; probably declining]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [P Lang: in decline; grassy woodland sp]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [highly localised; limited habitat]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Data Deficient
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Data Deficient
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [stronghold for SE]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainVulnerable
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat; probably declining]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockVulnerable
, Data Deficient
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Calocephalus]
Name derivation:
Calocephalus from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'kephale' meaning a head; referring to the colourful compound heads. Citreus from Latin meaning of or pertaining to the citron-tree; referring to the lemon-yellow flower colour.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, from the northern Flinders Ranges to the South-east, growing in clay or loam soils in grassland or open woodland. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Queensland and Tasmania. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Perennial herb with slender, erect branches to 60 cm high, felt-like, light grey. Leaves mostly opposite, linear to lanceolate, to 20 mm long and 2 mm wide, tomentose, often sheathing at base, upper leaves smaller, sometimes alternate, usually appressed to stem. Daisy heads globular to oblong, bright golden yellow. Flowering between November and May.
Fruit type:
Dense round pale yellow head.
Seed type:
Three-sided brown seed to 1.5 mm long and 0.8 mm wide with a tubercule surface.
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are matured, pale yellow, a bit spongy and contain brown seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for one to two week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Viable seeds will be small and brown. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 95% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA27150 (1.9792 g)50+13-Feb-2006HPV3020
South Eastern
14-Sep-2006100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA 
MSB
20000 (1.86 g)
20000 (1.86 g)
100+4-Feb-2006KHB 52
Flinders Ranges
14-Sep-200695%-18°C
BGA42000 (2.89 g)40+10-Mar-2011DJD1792
South Eastern
1-Jan-2012100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 2016100%7d7d Soak seeds overnight in 500 mg/L GA
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 201692%7d7d Soak seeds overnight in water
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 201648%28dNA Soak seeds overnight in water
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
July 201640%7dNA Soak seeds overnight in 500 mg/L GA
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)