Seeds of South Australia
Calocephalus citreus (Compositae)
Lemon Beauty-heads
List of species for Calocephalus
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Seed collecting:
February to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [records not databased]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat; probably declining]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [P Lang: in decline; grassy woodland sp]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [highly localised; limited habitat]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Data Deficient
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Data Deficient
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [stronghold for SE]
IBRA regions
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainVulnerable
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat; probably declining]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockVulnerable
, Data Deficient
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Calocephalus]
Name derivation:
Calocephalus from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'kephale' meaning a head, referring to the colourful compound heads. Citreus from Latin meaning of or pertaining to the citron-tree, referring to the lemon-yellow flower colour.
Found in the southern part of South Australia from the northern Flinders Ranges to the South-east growing in clay or loam soils in grassland or open woodland. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Queensland and Tasmania. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Perennial herb with slender, erect branches to 60 cm high, felt-like, light grey. Leaves mostly opposite, linear to lanceolate, to 20 mm long and 2 mm wide; tomentose, often sheathing at base; upper leaves smaller, sometimes alternate, usually appressed to stem. Daisy heads globular to oblong, bright golden yellow. Flowering between November and May.
Fruit type:
Dense round pale yellow head.
Seed type:
Three-sided brown seed to 1.5 mm long and 0.8 mm wide with a tuberculate surface.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are matured, pale yellow, a bit spongy and contain brown seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for one to two week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Viable seeds will be small and brown. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability was high, ranging from 95% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA27150 (1.9792 g)50+13-Feb-2006HPV3020
South Eastern
14-Sep-2006100%+5°C, -18°C
20000 (1.86 g)
20000 (1.86 g)
100+4-Feb-2006KHB 52
Flinders Ranges
BGA42000 (2.89 g)40+10-Mar-2011DJD1792
South Eastern
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-16100%7 d7 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1692%7 d7 d leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1648%28 dNA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1640%7 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)