Seeds of South Australia
Calotis breviradiata (Compositae)
Short-ray Burr-daisy
List of species for Calotis
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Seed collecting:
September to November
Herbarium region:
Nullarbor
NRM region:
Alinytjara Wilurara
IBRA region
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern   [WA species]
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Data Deficient   [possibly RE, old record]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Calotis]
Name derivation:
Calotis from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'otos' meaning ear; after the first species named in the genus, Calotis cuneifolia which has an ear-shaped pappus. Breviradiata from 'brevi' meaning short and 'radiatus' meaning spreading rays.
Distribution:
Found in the south-west part of South Australia, above the Nullarbor, growing in dried out water courses and claypans. Also found in Western Australia.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Common in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Perennial herb to 40 cm high with erect or ascending stems and  branches sparsely pubescent, often becoming woody at the base. Leaves sessile, cuneate to oblanceolate, to 3 cm long and 4 mm wide, 1-5-toothed near the apex, narrowed at the base, sparsely pubescent. Flower-head solitary or in loose terminal cymes of 2-4 yellow daisy-flowers. Flowering between July and September.
Fruit type:
Round spiny fruit-head.
Seed type:
Orange-brown archor-shaped seed to 3 mm long, with hairy winged margin at one end and spiny hairs at the other.
Embryo type:
Spathulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature seed heads that are dried and turning brown by picking off the heads and placing them in a paper bag. Be careful as the heads are spiny.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the heads in the paper bag to dry for at least a week. No further cleaning required if only the heads are collected. If other material were collected, use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Whole heads can be stored with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1773%1421 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1733%14NA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)