Seeds of South Australia
Calotis erinacea (Compositae)
Tangled Burr-daisy
List of species for Calotis
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [1 records in Talbots Reserve; edge of range; occurs on dunes, sandy soils; mobile sp]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient   [possibly adventive; questionable record]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Near Threatened   [edge of range; likes sand]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   [likes disturbance]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   [likes disturbance]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   [likes disturbance]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [remove nthn record (wrongly mapped or ID'ed)]
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04)Broken Hill Complex
 Data Deficient   [Historic records]
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Data Deficient
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Data Deficient
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [1 records in Talbots Reserve; edge of range; occurs on dunes, sandy soils; mobile sp]
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Data Deficient
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  [likes disturbance]
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)NullarborRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
3 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexData Deficient
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
3 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Calotis]
Name derivation:
Calotis from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'otos' meaning ear; after the first species named in the genus Calotis cuneifolia which has an ear-shaped pappus. Erinacea meaning like a hedgehog; alluding to the spiny ball fruit.
Distribution:
Found scattered across much of South Australia except on Kangaroo Island, growing on dunes and sandy soils as a locally dominant pioneer species and also in woodland and mallee. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Undershrub to 90 cm high, forming a dense clumps to 1 m or more in diameter. Stems erect to decumbent, much-branched, glabrous, becoming woody at the base. Leaves sessile, linear to oblanceolate to 6 cm long and 7 mm wide, acutely dentate or rarely entire, narrowed at the base, glabrous. Flower-head in loose leafy cymes with numerous flowers, ray florets yellow. Flowering most of the year.
Fruit type:
Dark brown to black round spiny fruit-head.
Seed type:
Brown triangular seed to 2 mm long with two short, curved and barbed spine at one end.
Embryo type:
Spathulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature seed heads that are dried and turning brown by picking off the heads and placing them in a paper bag. Be careful as the heads are spiny.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the heads in the paper bag to dry for at least a week. No further cleaning required if only the heads are collected. If other material were collected, use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Whole heads can be stored with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were low to high, ranging from 30% to 85%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
7192 (14.3 g)
7192 (14.3 g)
MKJ 42
Eyre Peninsula
31-Mar-200685%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
19700 (17.22 g)
19500 (17.07 g)
>3028-Oct-2004MOL 4671
Gairdner-Torrens
31-Mar-200630%-18°C
BGA6700 (17.22 g)~1227-Sep-2007MJT104
Lake Eyre
19-Sep-200880%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.