Seeds of South Australia
Calotis scabiosifolia var. scabiosifolia (Compositae)
Rough Burr-daisy
List of species for Calotis
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Seed collecting:
August to November
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Murray, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Southern Flinders (FLB04)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [seen on roadsides, likes heavy soils]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [seen on roadsides, likes heavy soils]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [isolated popn.]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Definite Decline)   [no records]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Data Deficient   [no records but occurs here]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Data Deficient   [no records but occurs here]
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [seen on roadsides, likes heavy soils]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [seen on roadsides, likes heavy soils]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Calotis]
Name derivation:
Calotis from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'otos' meaning ear; after the first species named in the genus Calotis cuneifolia which has an ear-shaped pappus. Scabiosifolia from the Latin 'scaber' meaning rough and 'folia' meaning leaves; referring to the rough leaves of the plant. 
Distribution:
Found in the Murray, Flinders Rangers and South Eastern regions of South Australia, growing in open woodland and grassland communities, on heavy clay soils in low-lying areas. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Stoloniferous perennial herb to 45 cm high. Basal leaves broad-spathulate, 4-18 cm long, 7-40 mm wide. Stem leaves mostly sessile, entire or dentate, elliptic, 0.5-2.5 cm long, 2-10 mm wide. Flower-head solitary or in loose leafy terminal cymes of 2-6 flowers, ray florets white. Flowering between May and October.
Fruit type:
Brown round spiny fruit-head.
Seed type:
Brown trianglar seed to 2 mm long, with numerous hairy spine at one end.
Embryo type:
Spathulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature seed heads that are dried and turning brown by picking off the heads and placing them in a paper bag. Be careful as the heads are spiny.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the heads in the paper bag to dry for at least a week. No further cleaning required if only the heads are collected. If other material were collected, use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Whole heads can be stored with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA1866 (5.21 g)40+16-Oct-2013KHB800
Flinders Ranges
24-Mar-201565%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
June 201380%77d77d Fruit soaked in Gibberllic acid (250mg/L) for 5 days. Seeds removed from seed coat after 6 weeks.
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
12/12 dark/light (6 weeks) then 14/10 dark/light (6 weeks)  /  20C Constant (6 weeks) then 5C (4hours); 15C (20hours) (6 weeks)
June 201358%42d77d Seed removed from seed coat after 6 weeks.
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
12/12 dark/light (6 weeks) then 14/10 dark/light (6 weeks)  /  20C Constant (6 weeks) then 5C (4hours); 15C (20hours) (6 weeks)
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)