Seeds of South Australia
Calotis scapigera (Compositae)
Tufted Burr-daisy
List of species for Calotis
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Seed collecting:
August to January
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Murray, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [restricted to river]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA b)   (Probable Decline)   [needs occasional floods]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Calotis]
Name derivation:
Calotis from the Greek 'kalos' meaning beautiful and 'otos' meaning ear; after the first species named in the genus Calotis cuneifolia which has an ear-shaped pappus. Scapigera from the Latin 'scapus' meaning stem, stalk and 'gero' meaning to bear; alluding to the species leafless flower stalk.
Distribution:
Found mainly along the River Murray in South Australia with some scattered records further north, growing chiefly in saltbush and river red gum communities, on damp clay soils in flood-prone areas. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Stoloniferous, perennial herb to 35 cm high. Basal leaves clustered, linear to lanceolate, margins entire or slightly toothed to 4 cm long and 9 mm wide. Stem leaves few, linear to lanceolate to 13 mm long and 3 mm wide. Flower-head solitary or rarely in a cyme of 2 or 3, ray florets white to lavender. Flowering between May and October.
Fruit type:
Brown round spiny fruit-head.
Seed type:
Brown pyrimidal-ovoid seed to 2 mm long with numerous hairy long spines at one end.
Embryo type:
Spathulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature seed heads that are dried and turning brown by picking off the heads and placing them in a paper bag. Be careful as the heads are spiny.
Seed cleaning:
Leave the heads in the paper bag to dry for at least a week. No further cleaning required if only the heads are collected. If other material were collected, use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Whole heads can be stored with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA230 (0.35 g)31-Jan-2007DJD758
Murray
1-Aug-200745%-18°C
BGA2300 (3.37 g)17-Oct-2006Murtho NFR
Murray
1-Aug-200750%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
June 201358%8d22d No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201258%8d22d None
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L gibberellic acid
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201342%8dNA Control: No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201242%8dNA None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201340%25d25d Fruit removed and leaching seeds in 400mg/L Gibberellic Acid for 3 days
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
June 201338%8dNA No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201238%8dNA None
1% water agar supplemented with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201316%8dNA No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 250mg/L Gibberellic acid (pH adjusted to 6.5)
Incubated under winter conditions
June 201216%8dNA None
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L gibberellic acid
Incubated under winter conditions
June 201316%18dNA No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar supplemented with 100mg/L Potassium Nitrate
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201216%18dNA None
1% water agar supplemented with 100mg/L potassium nitrate
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20134%25dNA Leaching seeds in RO water for 3 days
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20134%18dNA Control: No pre-treatment
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20124%18dNA None
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)