Seeds of South Australia
Cardamine papillata (Cruciferae)
Forest Bitter-cress
List of species for Cardamine
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
September to December
Herbarium regions:
Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [prob undercollected, but still restricted habitat]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [records not databased]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cardamine]
Name derivation:
Cardamine from the Greek 'kardamon' a name given by Dioscorides for a species of cress, an Indian spice and derived from the Greek 'cardia' meaning heart and 'damaein' meaning to blind, alluding to the reputed heart-strengthening effects of the plant. Papillata from the Latin 'papillatus' meaning bearing papillae (small rounded protuberances), referring to the warty margin of the leaves and fruits.
Distribution:
Found on Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower South-east in South Australia growing in hilly, forest areas. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Small erect or ascending annual or perennial herb to 25 cm high; glabrous or papillose. Basal leaves to 7 cm long, forming a persistent rosette; simple or pinnate, lateral pinnae circular, terminal pinna ovate to cordate. Stem leaves, if present variable in shape, upper leaves much reduced, margins sometimes papillose. Flowers usually few along a spike with white flower. Flowers in winter to spring.
Fruit type:
Long pale brown pods to 35 mm long, splitting into two, sometime papillose.
Seed type:
Small orange flat reniform seeds to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Bent.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing pods those turning pale brown with yellowish seeds inside. Be gentle with the pods as they split open easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and cover with paper to prevent seeds from popping out and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the dried pods gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
13100 (2.14 g)
13100 (2.14 g)
5021-Sep-2007RJB74356
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-200895%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.