Seeds of South Australia
Carex appressa (Cyperaceae)
Tussock Sedge
List of species for Carex
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Seed collecting:
November to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [undercollected ]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [on western end; pops outside reserves threatened by pigs, herbicides, blue gums]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern   [toerates nutrient-rich water]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [toerates nutrient-rich water]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [northern limit]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [northern limit]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainRare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Rare
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
  (Probable Decline)
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Carex]
Name derivation:
Carex is the classical Latin name for sedge, perhaps from 'carere' meaning to be absent, as the upper spikes are staminate (male) and do not produce seeds. May have been used by Virgil for plants in this genus and derives from ancient Greek 'keiro' meaning to cut; referring to the sharp edge of leaf margins. Appressa meaning lying close together.
Distribution:
Found in the Flinders Ranges, Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island and the lower South-east in South Australia, growing in damp areas including standing water. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Densely tufted sedge with tall stems to 1 m or so high, acutely triquetrous, scabrous on the edges towards the summit. Leaves to 6 mm wide, with scabrous margins. Inflorescence a long narrow spike-like panicle to 25 cm long, with inconspicuous bracts or the lowest sometimes prominent and filiform, spikelets very numerous, androgynous, ovoid, c. 5 mm long, glumes more or less hyaline, acute or subacute, shortly mucronate, the sides stained chestnut. 
Fruit type:
Pale brown, clusters of erect heads, each containing numerous individual fruit.
Seed type:
Brown ellipsoid seed to 4 mm long and 3 mm wide covered by a striated papery layer with serrated margin..
Embryo type:
Capitate.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by running your hands along the heads, mature seeds will come-off easily or cut whole heads that are brown, containing dark hard seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 90% to 95%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
8880
8880
30-4027-Apr-2004DJD 3
Southern Lofty
1-Sep-200485%+5°C, -18°C
BGA 
MSB
13000 (20.81 g)
13000 (20.81 g)
50+24-Jan-2006KHB48
Southern Lofty
28-Jul-200695%-18°C
BGA6300 (4.87 g)16-Jan-2007RJB70906
South Eastern
1-Aug-200790%-18°C
BGA19200 (21.17 g)207-Dec-2006RJB70979C
Southern Lofty
1-Aug-200795%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 200690%18d25d Stored at -18°C (1year). Leaching in warm water with 5 drops of Tween (48hrs)
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
April 201083%14d21d Stored at -18°C (5years). Leaching in warm water with 5 drops of Tween (48hrs)
1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 200477%19d22d Seed sterilised with 20% Hydrogen Peroxide (10min). Rinsed with sterile water.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water.
10/14 dark/light  /  10°C/20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)